Hair Loss in Women
Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is a non-scarring, progressive thinning of the hair with a gradual reduction in the number of hair, particularly in the frontal, central, and parietal scalp. There are difference common causes of hair loss in women. The loss of terminal hairs in the affected areas is typically incomplete, and the frontal hairline is frequently spared. It is related to a progressive decrease in the ratio of the terminal to vellus hair—a process known as follicular miniaturization. (1)
Humans typically lose between 50 and 100 individual hairs each day. Hair shedding is a natural process in which some hairs fall out and new hairs grow in. Hair loss occurs when the balance is upset—when less hair grows in and more hair falls out. Hair shedding is not the same as hair loss. Alopecia is the medical word for hair loss.
Patterns of Hair Loss
The typical FPHL symptom is a slowly progressing loss of hair, primarily over the vertex and upper parietal scalp, which may or may not be accompanied by an increase in shedding. The frontal hairline is frequently spared, and miniaturisation is also less extreme than in men. However, in certain females, pattern of hair loss affects the parietal and occipital regions of the scalp. FPHL often manifests in one of three ways: (2)
- Diffuse crown thinning while still maintaining the frontal hairline
- The frontal hairline is breached, and the center region of the scalp is becoming thinner and wider.
- Thinning with bitemporal recession
Hair Growth Cycle
- Growing phase (Anagen) can last anywhere between two and eight years. This stage normally corresponds to approximately 85% to 90% of your hair on your head.
- Transition phase (Catagen) lasts roughly two to three weeks and is characterized by shrinking hair follicles.
- Resting phase (Telogen) takes roughly two to four months. The hair falls out at the end of this phase.
Common Causes of Hair Loss in Women – 3 Types of Hair Loss
It is caused by drugs that poison a hair follicle that is developing. Chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and some pharmaceuticals are examples of toxic substances. These might cause unexpected hair loss anywhere on your body. It occurs during the growing stage of hair. If your hair follicles are injured, this sort of hair loss might be permanent.
It is caused by an increase in the number of hair follicles entering the resting phase, which is when hair falls out. Excessive physical stress or shock to your body causes temporary hair loss. This category includes occurrences such as losing a significant amount of weight, surgery, illness, and having a child. Extreme emotional stress, such as mental illness or the death of a loved one. Blood pressure medications, gout medications, and large doses of Vitamin A are examples of medications and supplements. Changes in hormones produced by pregnancy, menopause, or birth control drugs.
Hair thins on top and on the sides of the head. Hair thinning around the top of your head can be caused by your family’s genes Hormone changes as you become older might cause baldness. Estrogen levels drop during menopause, this type of hair loss often worsens.
How To Prevent Hair Loss
It is impossible to prevent hair loss caused by disease, ageing, hereditary, or physical stressors such as injuries. By avoiding caustic chemicals and tight hairstyles, you can prevent hair loss. You might be able to avoid some hair loss by eating a healthy diet that is high in vitamins, minerals, and protein. You are able to quit smoking.
which vitamin deficiency causes hair loss
Deficiency of vitamin D in your body might cause hair loss. One function of vitamin D is to stimulate both new and old hair follicles. When you don’t have enough vitamin D in your system, your hair growth can suffer.
3 Types of Hair Loss Treatment
1. Topical Therapy
Minoxidil is a pro-drug that is transformed to its active form, minoxidil sulphate, in the outer root sheath of hair by sulfotransferase enzymes. The FDA approved minoxidil 2% twice day for FPHL in 1991, and 5% minoxidil foam once daily in 2014. A randomised trial for FPHL found that 5% minoxidil foam used once daily was as effective as 2% minoxidil solution applied twice daily. Minoxidil is a potassium channel opener that promotes hair growth by shortening the hair cycle. It promotes angiogenesis in the follicle. (3)
Melatonin is well-known for its anti-oxidant capabilities and capacity to aggressively capture free radicals. Melatonin has been shown in numerous species, including humans, to regulate hair growth, pigmentation, and moulting. Male and female anagen hair growth was considerably increased by topical administration of melatonin 0.1% solution.
Microneedling is frequently used to promote hair growth by increasing blood flow and nutrient delivery to the treated area. The procedure initiates a healing process that promotes collagen production and hence strengthens hair follicles.
Low-level light therapy (LLLT) is a relatively recent treatment option. The mitochondrial cellular respiratory chain absorbs light energy, resulting in enhanced electron transport and the activation of cellular signaling, which induces hair regrowth. A comb, hood, and helmet are among the LLLT devices available for the treatment of alopecia. However, due to a lack of appropriate research, the efficacy of LLLT devices remains unknown.
2. Systemic Treatment
Dutasteride works by inhibiting the enzyme 5-alpha reductase, which prevents the creation of dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Hair loss is considerably reduced when the medication achieves this function. The medicine also increases the amount of scalp hairs and fills in balding areas of the scalp.
Flutamide is an oral anti-androgen that works by competitively reducing androgen absorption and nuclear binding in target tissues. At a dose of 250 mg per day, it has been found to be helpful in the treatment of FPHL in hyperandrogenic women.
Spironolactone decreases androgen production. These are sex hormones produced by men, including testosterone. Reduced androgen production can delay the course of hair loss caused by androgenic alopecia.
Cyproterone acetate: Sinclair’s recent tests reveal that 200 mg/day spironolactone had the same impact as 100 mg/day cyproterone acetate, resulting in reduced hair loss and hair regrowth in 44% of the instances. It halts disease progression in 12% of instances. (4)
3. Surgical Procedures
Hair transplantation includes the transfer of hair follicles from the occipital to the bald area and is a useful alternative for people over the age of 25 who have FPHL and have not responded to other medicinal therapies after the hair loss has stabilized. Women with dense hair in the occipital area and severe hair loss in the frontal scalp are ideal candidates for hair transplantation.
Camouflaging: The hair micropigmentation technique is a nonsurgical cosmetic procedure that simulates the appearance of hair follicles. Camouflage cosmetics and other camouflage methods can be used to conceal regions of obvious hair loss. Hair fibers (keratin-made), masking lotions, topical shading, and scalp spray thickeners can be used to treat mild to moderate hair loss. Integration hairpieces (fabric- or skin-like material) or wigs can be utilized for moderate-to-severe hair loss. Hats, scarves, bandanas, and turbans can be utilized for targeted or dispersed patches.
Mesotherapy with growth factors includes injecting growth factors into the dermis/subcutaneous tissue, such as insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), basic fibroblast growth factor (Bfgf), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), multivitamins, and amino acids. Mesenchymal stem cells can be extracted, processed, and employed in mesotherapy.
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